Because of AFFF long-term use, mandated by fire safety regulations, the fire protection infrastructure and surrounding soil and water may contain elevated PFAS. How to completely remove PFAS residuals from firefighting equipment and affected environmental media remains subject to study, and standards and regulations continue to evolve.


PFAS are key components of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) used for fire fighting and fire suppression starting in the 1960s. Sources of PFAS at fire stations include AFFF loading, handling and storage areas, aircraft and vehicle crash response areas and AFFF ponds, sumps, and tanks.

    • Former Training College

      Fiskville, Victoria, Australia
    • Bench and Pilot Scale Testing for Foaming Agent Removal from Wastewater

      United States